Time to hit the road? Far from setting off into the sunset and enjoying a relaxing journey, traveling with a dog can be a fur-raising experience.
Fear peeing, puking, and pooing; shaking, barking, whining and whimpering. Yeah, safe to say that hitting route 66 quickly turns into the road trip from hell when accompanied by your nervy canine. So, what can you do about it? Let’s work through our top waggly-tail tips.
Plan well ahead for accommodation
We don’t know why, but not everyone is a huge fan of dogs (between you and me—they don’t know what they’re missing). Anyway, dogs are pretty much a no-go for many motels and hotels, so you’ll need to do a little legwork before you set off.
This page lists pet-friendly hotels in the US, and allows you to search by date as well as book online. Easy peasy.
Make a list (check it twice, thrice, four times) and pack in good time
Packing for a smooth trip starts with getting organized and packing your bag at least the day before. Here’s a list of things to pop into your case for your pooch:
- Dog food
- Dog crate
- Food/water bowls
- Dog harness/seat belt buckle
- Up-to-date vaccine records (this will be required when entering Canada, as well as for staying at some accommodation)
- Poo bags
- Lint roller (for attempting to tackle that in-car dog hair)
Go for walkies beforehand
A long walk will pay off big time before your journey (at least double the usual daily walk should do nicely). Give him a small treat or two once he’s home, but avoid feeding him his usual meal (a full belly is a sure-fire way to bring about car sickness).
Dogs can easily (and happily) go for a day without food, just so long as they have plenty of water to hand.
When it’s time to set off, be sure to safely secure your dog with a seat buckle or place him in a good quality crate (don’t be tempted to let him hang his head out of the window – as this can lead to some pretty nasty eye injuries).
You should also make sure that he’s easily identifiable (at least through a collar tag and microchip). Ideally, however, you should go one step further, and fit him with a dog tracker (there are some great—and inexpensive—options out there that work with your smartphone – such as the Paw Tracker; Gibi Pet Locator and Link AKC Smart Dog Collar).
Finally, think about the weather. If it’s the midst of summer and your car is air-conditioning free you should plan to avoid traveling during the hottest times of the day.
Top up your gas at quiet stations
If possible, try to stop off for gas and toilet breaks at stations outside of built-up urban areas, as it’ll be more likely that you’ll discover a grassy space (which can encourage a reluctant pooch to open his bladder!).
Take a pitstop for a mid-way walk
Try to split your journey up every couple of hours or so with a 15-minute walk. This may take some planning, but it shouldn’t be too challenging to discover a nice walk just a short way off most main highways.
Pop in a CBD bone or two into your pouch’s packing
CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that’s derived from all-natural, 3rd party tested hemp (e.g. it won’t make your canine stoned – it’ll simply calm their nerves and get them travel-ready).
CBD bones are made for everything from the terrors of fireworks to taking a road trip or plane ride.
FOMO bones team CBD with a formidable team of valerian root, chamomile and passion flower for one all-natural canine calmer.
About the Author: Jennifer is the voice behind the FOMO Bones blog. She’s pretty sure she was a Great Dane in her past life, but her team at FOMO pegs her as more of a Labrador. Regardless of her breed, she’s a dog enthusiast with 15 years’ experience training dogs and owners.
Anxiety can happen to everyone at some point or another. For some people, becoming anxious may just happen rarely in unusual circumstances. For others, however, it can be a more consistent and progressive issue. Most of us, or at least the ones reading this post, have experienced a hangover at some stage. A very delicate head, a restless stomach, zero energy, and a thirst that just can’t be quenched are just a few hangover symptoms. But when hangover anxiety kicks in, it’s a whole other ball game. Below, we are looking into what causes hangover anxiety and how you can use CBD gummies to help with it.
What Is Hangover Anxiety?
First of all, hangover anxiety doesn’t just happen to those who are already diagnosed with anxiety. Hangover anxiety can happen to absolutely anyone, though not everyone will even be aware of what it is. Our body produces a natural chemical called serotonin that is responsible for regulating our emotions. Alcohol causes the level of serotonin to spike which is why a person’s mood can be all over the place when they drink. Ever seen your friends get over the top passionate about everything in life when they drink? Or perhaps they collapse on the floor bawling their eyes out because they lost their straw and now they think that they are losing everyone in their lives? Well, that is all thanks to the major increase in serotonin levels caused by excessive drinking.
Alcohol stays in the system for a while after you feel sober, but due to the large rise of serotonin when drinking the alcohol, it comes crashing back down again, packs its bags, and heads off for some alone time. The process of fluctuating serotonin levels is what can cause an intensified feeling of anxiousness or even depression. Now, you would think that since it is referred to as hangover anxiety that it comes once you have sobered up, but this isn’t always the case. Sometimes, anxiety can be heightened at the time of consuming alcohol. It simply just depends. For people who are clinically diagnosed with anxiety, the typical side effects of a hangover can trigger anxiety. The nauseous feeling can lead to health anxiety resulting in a panic.
CBD for a Hangover
Lately, CBD products have been popping up everywhere and, by the looks of it, this will continue at a rapid rate. Organizations and scientists are now investing more in researching and studying the effects of CBD as it has so far shown very positive results in treating a number of health conditions. Cannabis helps to alleviate chronic pain and the same can be said for CBD. Three of the most common reasons behind using CBD are to help combat depression, anxiety, and pain. CBD products are available in all sorts of forms, but the most popular is CBD oil and CBD gummies.
The fascinating thing about CBD is its potential to interact with the body’s receptors. There is strong evidence to suggest that when CBD is introduced into our system, it locates certain receptors and calms them down, meaning that they begin to stop signaling to the brain that we are in pain or are panicking. And the best bit: It can do this without getting you high. As you are probably aware, CBD is a specific compound known as cannabinoid that is derived from a particular strain of cannabis plant. THC is also a cannabinoid compound. However, THC is what is responsible for getting you high. CBD, on the other hand, has the ability to calm and uplift without providing the high.
Using CBD Gummies
CBD gummies are quite literally exactly as you would expect. Gummy sweets that contain CBD. They are an easier way to ingest CBD and especially beneficial for those that dislike the taste of CBD oil, vape pens, or sprays. Really, though, why would you want to swallow an earthy-tasting oil when you can just eat really cool gummy candies? Just above, we talked about how CBD can help with a hangover and anxiety. CBD gummies are just another way to introduce CBD into the system in order to start getting those potential benefits.
They have also been known to help you get a decent night’s sleep. The feelings of anxiety usually increase at night when you are trying to sleep as you aren’t really concentrating on anything. The brain starts to play games and before you know it, 4am has arrived, and you haven’t had a wink of sleep. Lack of sleep then causes anxiety levels to rise, and suddenly you are stuck in a vicious cycle.
You take CBD gummies in the same way that you eat any other candy. The gummy version of CBD tends to take longer to start working than the oil does. In around 20 minutes they should begin to start releasing their powers. The amount that you eat depends on the strength of the CBD along with your own condition. There will, or should, always be consumption instructions inside the packaging to help you find the right amount for you.
Sunday Scaries CBD Gummies for Anxiety
If you have been searching for CBD gummies then look no further than Sunday Scaries CBD Gummies for Anxiety. Their products are all lab tested and contain no THC whatsoever. Their CBD gummies recipe is formulated with D3 and B12 vitamins along with the highest quality of full spectrum CBD. For all of you beautiful vegans out there, Sunday Scaries also has Vegan AF Gummies for Anxiety that work just as well as their standard line. If you are a renowned CBD enthusiast, then check out their subscription packages to make sure that you never run low on your CBD stash again. It is the remedy that makes anxiety not so scary.
Hangovers and anxiety are nasty enough on their own, and when the two are combined, it can feel like one of the biggest battles yet. But, where there is CBD, there is hope. So, make use of nature’s magic and tell that hangover anxiety where to go.
Using cannabis for such medical purposes as pain relief, especially chronic pain, and arthritis, sore muscles, and general pain and inflammation is trending massively all around the world right now and not just among the alternative health nuts. CBD oil has already penetrated the mainstream market, and last year saw the industry progress in leaps and bounds. While the most common form of experiencing the therapeutic benefits of the marijuana plant is taking CBD oil orally, more people suffering from aches, pains, and skin conditions are using CBD-infused topical creams.
CBD salve is convenient to keep to hand when you need quick relief from localized pain, like achy joints and muscles, and you can use as much or as little as you like. The wonderful thing about using a homemade healing lotion is that you can play around with different strengths and scents to ensure pain relief, and you won’t have to worry about running out and waiting for your next order to be delivered. Many people have had great success following the recipe that I will be sharing with you—it is very effective, easy to make, and, most importantly, cost-effective.
Do Topical Lotions Work as Well as CBD Oil?
CBD-rich salves, balms, and creams aren’t absorbed into the bloodstream, but rather into subcutaneous tissue via pores in the skin. From the balm or topical cream form, the powerful cannabinoids are then able to interact with the relevant receptors found in the skin’s nerve fibers as a great pain management system that will help combat muscle soreness. While the majority of people who use CBD to treat issues like anxiety and insomnia find that oral ingestion is the most effective method, a topical salve is proven to provide fast relief for localized pain and works almost instantaneously. CBD lotion is known to offer relief from problems like:
- Joint pain
- Muscle aches
- Blotchy skin
- Back pain
And, thanks to all of the rich proteins, vitamins, and fatty acid found present in CBD oil, our skin will be eternally grateful for this added nourishment.
How Much CBD Oil Should You Put in Your Homemade Lotion?
Due to insufficient research on specific dosage, a general rule of thumb is to use your intuition to decide how much CBD you need to add into your recipe mixture. After doing some research on commercial, high-quality pain reliever products that can be found online, it seems that the typical amount of CBD oil found present in topical creams is approximately 100 mg CBD for every 30 ml of finished product. It is worth noting that you cannot overdo it, so feel free to use as much CBD oil as you like—or simply play around with measures until you create a formula that works for your particular needs. If you suffer from a severe skin ailment or pain, then you can increase the amount of CBD oil you put into your balm to as much as 500 mg per 30 ml.
A word of advice before you get started:
You should really endeavor to make sure that the CBD oil you will use for making a homemade lotion is of the highest quality. Trying to cut corners by saving a few bucks on purchasing an unreputable product will likely result in your time being wasted and, while your skin might still improve, chances are your pain will not. Concentration is key, so always look for the purest organic oil you can find.
Selecting a Good Carrier Oil for Your Salve
The liberating thing about DIY remedies is that you can tailor them to be just how you like them to rid those achy muscles. What’s more, you will have a whole load of freedom with regards to selecting a carrier oil for your homemade lotion, as you can pretty much use whatever you have on hand at home. Many people like to use hemp seed oil to reap the maximum benefits of the plant’s goodness, but others find the smell too pungent and earthy and use organic coconut oil or avocado oil instead. You can also add vitamin E oil into your concoction, as it is rich in antioxidants and also increases the shelf life of your product, should you prefer not to keep it refrigerated.
Don’t feel that you need to conform, however—a lot of people use plain old olive oil for simplicity, but this can result in quite a runny finished product. If you wanted a lotion that is “meatier,” then you could consider adding in some beeswax to firm it up a bit.
Creating Your Homemade CBD Lotion
This process couldn’t be easier, so just follow the steps and make sure that you cook it on low heat. This is possibly the most important thing you need to worry about in order to produce an effective topical ointment.
- Once you have measured out how much lotion you want to make, melt your coconut oil (or carrier oil of choice) on low heat slowly
- Stir in the desired amount of CBD oil
- If you want a firmer salve, melt a couple of inches (or a handful of pellets) of beeswax in a separate pot and allow it to become fluid
- When the wax has melted completely, slowly add in your oil mixture making sure to stir to avoid any clumps
- Allow the mixture to cool completely before transferring it to an airtight container (preferably glass as it doesn’t have the nasty toxins found in plastic) and pop in the fridge
Now, here’s the only slightly complex part of the whole thing. As your mixture cools, it will solidify somewhat (especially if you have used coconut oil.) However, if your gut tells you that it will still end up being too runny, then you can add more beeswax until you obtain the consistency that you desire.
Adding Scent to Your Lotion
Personally, I tend to like the natural earthy smell given off by the combination of coconut oil and CBD oil. However, there are many others who prefer to add essential oils to their lotion mixture to make it even dreamier. For example, lavender oil could be a great choice if you want to relax, and it is also known to have a soothing effect on the skin. Alternatively, you could add in some eucalyptus to pack an extra punch and clear your sinuses. To be perfectly honest, you can use any kind of chemical-free scent that appeals to you. There is no wrong or right here—your lotion, your choice! Just make sure you stir in any scents or essential oils once your concoction has fully cooled to ensure its full potency.
Everyone’s talking about CBD. So, what gives? Well, quite a lot actually. Far from just being the health, well-being, and fitness fad of the moment, this natural oil has plenty of proven benefits going for it. Like the fact that there’s scientific proof that it’s anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety, great for your immune system, and can even reduce pain.
Now, to add to these benefits, a study has found that using CBD while working out can also help speed up recovery times.
More CBD, less stiffness, less soreness
Catabolic hormones are responsible for breaking down muscle tissue. When you’re looking to increase muscle mass and improve muscle tone, driving down your levels of catabolic hormones (including cortisol) is essential.
Excessive cortisol impairs protein synthesis and proactively works against tissue growth. When cortisol levels are too high, even the hardest hitting of workouts could bring about little in the way of muscle improvement. On the flip side, cortisol is pivotal to protecting the liver and removing toxins (which is why cortisol is still needed by the body, despite its negative effects).
CBD oil can play a central role in helping your body hold onto a natural cortisol balance. According to Stuart Titus, president and CEO of Medical Marijuana, Inc., the study “actually mentions very specifically that the non-psychoactive cannabinoids like CBD are more preferable to use because you can give larger doses without any of the intoxicating or negative side effects.”
A solid night’s sleep before hitting the gym
Your body recovers best (and fastest) while asleep, which CBD oil can help with too. Looking at the biology of it, CBD oil engages CB2 receptors in the limbic and paralimbic regions of the brain. These serve as the “control centers” of the endocannabinoid system (the system that’s responsible for regulating sleep and mood).
CBD has been found to aid regular REM sleep (the deep, dreamy kind of sleep), which is exactly when optimum recovery time takes place.
Up your stamina with a rush of anandamide
Ever heard of runner’s high? If you’ve not been lucky enough to experience this euphoric feeling while working out, allow us to fill you in. Some think that it’s nothing more than a myth. But actually, there’s plenty of research out there that proves the existence of this phenomenon.
Runner’s high can be experienced after any long, hard workout that gets the adrenaline pumping. For decades, it was thought that the release of endorphins was responsible for the effect, but more recently a study has shown that it is the endocannabinoid system that is behind runner’s high or, more specifically, a flood of anandamide, which is an endocannabinoid compound. And guess what naturally regulates this compound? Yeah, that would be CBD oil.
Up your stamina x2 with regulated blood sugar levels
Last (but by no means least) we need to talk about blood sugar levels. Get these wrong with an imbalanced diet, and you’re going to be grappling with energy dips as you attempt to put in a reasonable gym performance.
Now, here’s something interesting: While a carefully considered diet is absolutely essential to your blood sugar levels, chronic inflammation (which many athletes struggle with) can be a cause of insulin resistance (the hormone that regulates blood sugar).
Three years ago, research into this area found something staggering—that CBD could potentially be used to treat diabetes. This study reported findings that the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol not only aided chronic inflammation but also improved the body’s metabolism. This ranks among one of the most impressive benefits of CBD yet. And research into this natural resource is really only in its infancy.
So, CBD. It’s believed to aid stamina, regulate cortisol and blood sugars, and support you as you work your way to runner’s high.
As an athlete, CBD oil is almost as essential to pack into your gym bag as your sweatpants and sneakers.
Hallo, there, sweethearts. Today I want to share an article contribution from Sunday Scaries. Sunday Scaries is a company that sells high-quality CBD. But, more than that, they are a company that advocates for the use of CBD to help you, in their words, “chill the f*** out.” I love it. Sunday Scaries shares information about the uses of CBD to help with stress, anxiety, and more. As a CBD user myself, I’m happy to share any content the subject might help others.
So, without further ado and with a hearty thanks to Sunday Scaries, here’s Anxiety vs Paranoia.
**This article by Madeleine first appeared on Sunday Scaries.
As we work toward destigmatizing mental illness, many people are now learning basic psychological terms for the first time. Where once it might have been challenging to find words to describe your mental health experiences, terms such as anxiety, depression, and paranoia are becoming fairly commonplace. But what do these words actually mean and how they can affect your life?
If you suffer from anxiety, there is a good chance that you may also suffer from paranoia. If you suffer from paranoia, there is a good chance that you may also suffer from anxiety. However, just because you have one does not necessarily mean that you have the other. While they can go hand-in-hand, it is not always the case. Before you can understand in which ways paranoia and anxiety are similar, you must first understand why they are also quite different.
What Is Paranoia?
Paranoia is characterized by intense, fearful feelings and is often related to thoughts of conspiracy, persecution, and threats. While often occurring in many different mental disorders, paranoia is often not present in several psychotic disorders. With paranoia, irrational beliefs and paranoid thoughts are made out to be real and absolutely nothing—not even factual evidence disproving the belief—is able to convince you that you are wrong. When you have delusions or paranoia without other symptoms, you may have something known as a delusional disorder which could ultimately lead to a nervous breakdown. As only your thoughts would be impacted by a delusional disorder, you would still be able to function and work in your everyday life. Outside of work, however, your life could be isolated and extremely limited.
Signs of Paranoia
Some of the symptoms you can expect to see if you are suffering from paranoia include an intense and even irrational lack of trust or suspicion about something or someone. This lack of trust or suspicion has the potential to bring you a sense of betrayal, fear, and anger. In fact, if you suffer from paranoia, you may show such symptoms as:
- Difficulty forgiving
- Fear of being taken advantage of
- Defensiveness toward imagined criticism
- Thoughts that everyone is out to get you
- The inability to relax
Paranoia is caused by a breakdown of different emotional and mental functions. Those functions involve both assigned meanings and reasoning. While there is no real reason known for the breakdowns, they are extremely varied and uncertain. At the same time, there are also several symptoms of paranoia that are related to denied, projected, or repressed feelings. What is known about the cause of paranoia, however, is that it is often feelings and thoughts related to relationships or certain events in your life that cause the problem. Since these events are typically more personal, this is often the reason why those who suffer from paranoia prefer to be isolated and have increasing difficulty when it comes to getting help.
What Is Anxiety?
For most of us, anxiety is considered more of a general term that covers multiple disorders that cause fear, worry, nervousness, and apprehension. All of these anxiety-related disorders affect how we behave, think, and feel and can eventually lead to physical symptoms as well. While a mild case of anxiety can be unsettling and vague, a more severe case of anxiety can be so serious as to affect your everyday life.
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), the exact definition of anxiety is “an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes like increased blood pressure.”
That being said, of the varying degrees of anxiety, it is important to identify the differences between the feelings of normal anxiety compared to a full-on anxiety disorder that requires some type of medical attention.
When you are faced with a potentially worrying or harmful trigger, feelings of anxiety manifest. They are not just normal but are actually required for your survival. You see, ever since the beginning of humanity, certain situations have set off alarms within the human brain letting us know that we need to carry out evasive action. These alarms come in the form of sweating, a heightened awareness of surroundings, and an increased heart rate. This is known as the “fight or flight response.”
In today’s day and age, this same fight or flight response doesn’t come from dangerous predators, but rather money, work, health, family life, and myriad other issues that demand your attention.
For example, the nervous feeling we have all experienced at some point in our lives is essentially brought on by a difficult situation, such as a first date or other important event. This nervous feeling could emerge right before giving a speech in front of 1,500 peers, the day of your wedding, or even crossing a busy road getting the feeling that you are going to be hit by a car.
An anxiety disorder is essentially when the symptoms, duration, and severity of your anxious feelings are blown out of proportion. An anxiety disorder can actually lead to several physical symptoms, such as nausea and high blood pressure. If these physical symptoms are observed, it is no longer considered anxiety but an anxiety disorder. An anxiety disorder occurs when you have a reaction that is out of proportion to what is considered normal within a certain situation.
There are several different types of anxiety disorders that include:
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
- Panic disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- Social anxiety disorder
- Separation anxiety disorder
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Some common eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa, are also linked to anxiety. It is also possible to have one or more anxiety disorders at the same time. While anxiety and paranoia are two separate conditions, certain anxiety symptoms can include and may lead to paranoia. If you have paranoia, chances are that you got to that point in your life by having more severe degrees of anxiety.
Other Causes of Anxiety
Although many mental illnesses can cause anxiety, one does not have to be mentally ill to experience it. Mental health is more than just being “sick” or “healthy,” and there are many complex factors that can cause otherwise unafflicted people to experience certain symptoms without warranting an official diagnosis. Here are some reasons—other than mental illness—as to why one may experience anxiety:
- Substance use
- Extreme stress at work, school, or in personal relationships
- Financial hardships
- Physical health conditions, such as thyroid disorders
- Lack of oxygen to the brain due to health circumstances, including blood clots and high-altitude sickness
- Side effects of certain medications
It is important to understand that your mental health is always important. It is not “just” stress from a busy schedule or a workplace conflict. If anxiety from personal circumstances is interfering with your life, you should reach out for help and talk to your doctor about getting the help that you need.
Who Experiences Anxiety and Paranoia?
The short answer is that anyone could be experiencing anxiety, paranoia, or both. These conditions do not discriminate based on physical health, income, age, or any other factors. That being said, there are certain people who are particularly vulnerable. Here are some groups of people who are most at risk for anxiety:
- Adults under 35
- Those with chronic diseases
- Low-income individuals
- Racial minorities
- Drug users
- Women are nearly twice as likely to develop anxiety than men
- North Americans are more likely to develop anxiety than other populations
Many of these groups, such as drug users, are also generally more vulnerable to paranoia. Given the fact that paranoia is rarer than anxiety, it is important also to look at one’s genetic history and whether there are past instances of paranoia and psychosis in the family tree.
Please note that this list is far from extensive. If you do not match any of the descriptions above, it does not mean that you are not in need of help.
Similarities Between Anxiety and Paranoia
As you can see, the two conditions are not totally similar, but they are not totally different either. Anxiety is much more prevalent in modern society, with a predicted 40 million Americans suffering every year. However, both conditions can have overlapping signs and symptoms.
Both conditions can leave you feeling hopeless, restless, a reluctance to trust and reach out to others, and a sense of low self-worth. They also both have symptoms that can manifest in physical ways, such as with trouble breathing, a poor sleeping pattern, and even digestive health issues in more serious cases.
Regardless of which condition (or both) that you are struggling with, it is critical that you see a doctor right away. Just like with physical ailments, early detection and diagnosis can help improve outcomes and make the treatment process easier and faster.
If any of the above symptoms ring a bell, you might be overwhelmed with questions. Do you have anxiety or paranoia or both? Which diagnosis, if any, fits your situation? What treatment options are available? Can you take medication? Should you be going to a therapist?
There are lots of questions needing to be answered, but fortunately, you have someone in your life who can help you know how to start treating your health issues: your doctor.
Book an appointment with your family doctor and discuss the symptoms you have been experiencing. It is important to be honest about your situation and not downplay any of your symptoms. This is especially true if you believe that you might have a delusional disorder or feel that you might be at risk of hurting yourself or others.
Your doctor might refer you to a psychiatrist, a psychologist, a social worker, or another trained mental health professional. They might also recommend blood work and other physical tests. They should be able to speak with you about the next steps to take care of your health and discuss the possibility of using medication or therapy to help you recover.
Strategies to Cope with Paranoia and Anxiety
Medical treatments like anti-anxiety medications or counseling can help you get a handle on your condition, but there are also everyday things you can do to make your life easier. From spending a bit more time focusing on self-care to addressing any workplace issues that might arise from your symptoms, it is important to take actions to address your condition head-on. Here are just a few of the strategies that could help you cope on a day-to-day basis:
- Reach out to loved ones when you feel you need it
- Be forthcoming with employers and teachers when your mental health is affecting your performance. They can work with you to make the necessary accommodations
- Consider taking sick days or time off work if you feel unable to handle it without making your condition worse
- Get enough sleep at night
- Stay hydrated and eat a healthy diet
- Leave yourself time every day to unwind and relax away from the stresses of school and/or work
- Consider dropping unnecessary or stressful commitments
- Treat any physical health problems that may be contributing to your paranoia or anxiety
- If possible, get at least 30 minutes of exercise daily
- Speak to your doctor about CBD, which has been shown to help with anxiety
Remember, if you ever feel at risk of seriously hurting yourself or those around you, this is a medical emergency. You should call 911 or go to your nearest emergency room to get help immediately.
While the causes and symptoms of both anxiety and paranoia are different, having one may increase your chances of having the other. It is true that you can be paranoid and not have any signs of anxiety; it is also true that you can have anxiety with no signs of paranoia. No matter what the situation of your symptoms may be, if you ever feel like you are overly anxious or that you may be paranoid, the best thing you can do for yourself is to seek out medical help before your conditions become too severe.
It’s the end of the year if you hadn’t noticed, so I wanted to put up a very special post to celebrate a time of thankfulness, giving, generosity, and … Oh, who am I kidding? It’s a Bowiepasta! Enjoy!
Ragged breathing fills the tiny closet as Brian fumbles his phone. He snatches it up and stares at the text message on the screen:
Adam: Where are you, man? He’s coming. He got my family.
Brian’s face pinches, his throat like sandpaper as he works to swallow—as he works to breathe. He pulls at his hair and fights the urge to rock back and forth. Thinking. Panicking.
It’s just an urban legend, it’s just an urban legend. Brian’s mantra. It’s not working. If it were only an urban legend, Brian wouldn’t be hiding in the closet.
His phone flashes another text notification. He checks it:
Adam: Are you ok? No lights in your house on. Where are you?!
Brian shakes his head, a small keening sound escaping his lips. No, no, no, he thinks, can’t be. After all, his mom is out on the front porch right now passing out candy. Brian strains to hear something, anything, but the house is deathly quiet. That’s not right. No, no, no, not right, not right.
A high-pitched wail slices through the silence. Brian flinches, tears streaming down his face as that terrible scream echoes through his head. He can feel his pulse pounding. He can hear it. No, that’s … Footsteps.
And they’re close.
Brian reaches blindly around the floor beside him. As his fingertips find the cool metal barrel, his breath finally comes easier. Some kind of relief. The footsteps get closer. Oh, god, it’s real. It’s real. Brian can’t deny it anymore. Now he’s just hoping to hell he won’t have to pull the trigger.
The footsteps move into his bedroom, tracing the perimeter. He can hear the scuffling, shuffling of the man in his bedroom, searching.
Finally, the footsteps stop in front of the closet. The door is flung open with such force that it slams against the wall, the thud of the impact drowned out by a resounding crack.
There in the doorway stands DAVID MUTHA FUCKIN’ BOWIE. **insert axe music**
The floor beneath Bowie opens and flames lick at the edges, framing him in a halo of fire. Crows kamikaze dive at the bedroom windows, some breaking the glass, others getting stuck in the screen, all shrieking calls of worship to the Rock God.
But the show is for nothing, as Brian sits slumped in the closet missing half his head.
Hallo there, sweethearts. If you feel like I may have ghosted you for a bit, I place the blame solely on Dave. He’s getting out of hand. You know how it goes. But I’m back now, and I have a special guest. No, Dave, it isn’t you. I swear. Right! Before we dive in—I don’t want you to get any ideas, I know how you are—here’s a friendly disclaimer:
The below represents the opinions of psychologist Jerry Vanzant Walker, III, Ph.D., and not the opinions or beliefs of the United States Air Force or the entire field of professional psychology.
As you might have guessed by now, the special guest is Dr. Jerry Walker! You might remember months ago when I released a two-part series on mood and anxiety disorders (part I—part II). Well, this is a bit of a follow-up to that. We’ve focused on the science and on the individuals suffering these types of disorders, so now we’re getting another POV.
Now, if you’ve dealt with any chronic or recurring disease/disorder, I’d be willing to bet that going through the gauntlet of finding a doctor has been a fucking nightmare. That’s just the way it is, sadly. Trying to find medical help—whether mental or physical—can be extremely frustrating. There’s a disconnect somewhere. Whether we like doctors or not, we subconsciously place them on a pedestal. We expect them to know everything about anything that could be wrong with us because, I mean, doctor. You know? Well, surprise! That’s not how it works. Something we need to remember when seeking medical help is that medical professionals are people too. Calm your tits, Dave, I know it’s a revelation.
Meet the Psychologist
Dr. Walker is a licensed psychologist who’s been working (both active duty and as a contractor) for the USAF for the past six years. He earned his BA in Psychology and BS in Communication Studies from the University of Texas—where he was also a male cheerleader—and earned his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology & Human Systems from Florida State University. Dr. Walker always had a desire to serve the military. He started talking to recruiters while in high school, but his parents were adamant that he go to college first. The study of psychology always fascinated him, but in undergrad it became his passion. In grad school, his program’s Director of Clinical Training (a former Navy psychologist) asked if Dr. Walker had ever considered working for the VA or military.
After entering the Air Force for his psychology residency in San Antonio, Dr. Walker spent the remainder of his career at Langley Air Force Base in southeast Virginia. He works as an embedded psychologist and behavioral/human factors consultant for a large intelligence organization on the Langley Air Force Base. As if that weren’t enough, he also has a local part-time private practice. The work ethic is strong with this one.
Throughout his military career, Dr. Walker has run an outpatient substance abuse program, a 25-person multidisciplinary outpatient mental health clinic, a suicide prevention program for 11,000 personnel at a military installation, and a disaster mental health team which responded to eight crises. He has also served as the sole psychologist for 9,000+ American, British, Canadian, and Australian military personnel in a deployed location. Dr. Walker’s graduate research and personal proclivity toward resilience and performance enhancement—vs treatment or remediation of deficits—led him to pursue opportunities within the military to work with special operations forces and other communities which might benefit from having an in-house psychological consultant.
When he isn’t working, Dr. Walker spends time with his wife and son. He’s a bit of an outdoorsy guy who enjoys kickboxing, playing racquetball and guitar, and reading fantasy. I mean, he’s legit a real person. Not a cyborg or robot or Pleadian. Damn Pleadians.
Diagnosis from a new POV
I’ve heard a good deal of horror stories when it comes to getting a diagnosis and finding the right treatment. I’d make a joke about one of the side effects of trying to get a correct diagnosis being a sharp pain in the ass, but I’m realizing it’s becoming my own personal cliché. Which you’d know if you read Rise and Run. So never mind. Joke aborted, shameless plug ended. In any case, I wanted to provide a new POV on the diagnosis process so that we can get a better understanding of, you know, the whole process.
According to Dr. Walker, diagnostics is a continual process that involves listening to what the patient says—or doesn’t say—and knowing the right questions to ask and how to ask them. “Most mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5) as a guide when making a diagnosis,” says Dr. Walker. “Mental health disorders are described generally in terms of clusters of symptoms, so in order for a patient to meet diagnostic criteria, they generally have to endorse a sufficient number of symptoms from various clusters or categories.”
Dr. Walker usually utilizes the first session to try to get a general sense of what the patient is experiencing and the timeline/progression of symptoms. “It may be several sessions before we are able to trace [an individual’s] presenting concerns to their etiology,” says Dr. Walker. When this happens, he will sometimes provide a general (e.g. Unspecified Anxiety Disorder) or tentative diagnosis until there is enough information to either rule in or rule out a diagnosis with more certainty. “Sometimes a patient won’t reveal certain symptoms or experiences they’ve had or are having until much later on in treatment, because they didn’t believe them to be relevant to their presenting concern,” Dr. Walker explains. “Additionally, we have to determine the extent and severity of functional impact of these symptoms, as this is a core component of mental health diagnoses.”
Dr. Walker notes that empathic listening is critical to both fostering a collaborative, working relationship with a patient and determining accurate diagnoses. “It also helps to have general working knowledge of the DSM-5, though I do keep a pocket reference book nearby in case I need to refer to the diagnostic criteria for some of the rarer disorders.”
Trick or Treatment
So, we’ve gone through the diagnosis process and now we get to the fun part. Treatment! Or, rather, a whole host of attempted treatments that are less than stellar, followed by a winner. At least, that’s generally the patient’s experience. I asked Dr. Walker about the path to treatment and whether the original diagnosis could change depending on what worked and what didn’t. “Contemporary psychological practice emphasizes the use of evidence-based practices (i.e. psychological treatment procedures that are widely supported by a series of sound research studies) for the treatment of specific mental health conditions,” Dr. Walker says. “Depending on the complexity, acuity, coping resources, insight, etc. of the patient and their mental health condition(s), treatment can vary widely in terms of scope and longevity. I’ve helped folks ameliorate chronic PTSD in as little as four one-hour sessions. I’ve also worked with an individual with childhood-related PTSD and Borderline Personality Disorder on a weekly basis for nearly two years (with relatively minor ultimate progress).” There’s also an aspect of patient commitment and patient-therapist relationship impacting the efficacy of treatment: “The stronger these are, generally the better the outcome.”
I want you to pay close attention to this next bit. There’s an important message there. “Psychologists do not prescribe medication [usually] but they do advocate for their patients and refer them to prescribing mental health providers when appropriate,” Dr. Walker says. Advocate. That’s fantastic. It’s great if you can find a healthcare pro who will advocate for you, but I want to stress that it is even more important for you to advocate for yourself. The more proactive you are when dealing with health problems and the more you advocate for yourself, the more likely you’ll be able to find a healthcare pro or team that will be willing to advocate for you. What’s that, Dave? Oh, yes. Got distracted. Back to the path … of treatment! “Typically, a general class of medication will be selected for treatment of specific mental health conditions. There does seem to be some evidence that specific drugs within a class are more indicated for a specific condition than others,” Dr. Walker says. “They also may have different effects/side effects (e.g., Zoloft, an SSRI, has been deemed safe for use to treat depression during pregnancy, though Prozac, also an SSRI, is not).”
And, as it turns out, the original diagnoses can change based on medication responses/non-response. “There are some cases I’ve seen where a prescriber gives a medication that reveals the diagnosis was entirely different. An SSRI prescribed for depression set off a manic episode, wherein it was discovered the patient did not have unilateral depression but actually a bipolar disorder.”
Mental Health and Violence
One mental health conversation that pops up periodically (mostly sensationalized in the media) is mental health in relation to extreme acts of violence—after mass shootings or spree killings, for instance. “Believe it or not, acts of violence are rarely related to mental health disorders such as depression, PTSD, or schizophrenia as the popular media might have you believe,” says Dr. Walker. “In actuality, substance abuse has a far higher contribution to self-harm, domestic violence, child abuse, and sexual assault.” I can’t say that’s surprising. The way the media presents most mental health discussions is a detriment to both the understanding and perception of mental health issues. Come, plebes, let us take a journey in the Way Way Back machine because I want to reference a particular mass shooting. If we look at the case of Charles Whitman, he obviously knew something was wrong. He sought help. It was only after his death that an autopsy (requested in his suicide note) revealed a tumor that “conceivably could have contributed to his inability to control his emotions and actions,” according to the Connally Commission. So, I guess my question is: At what point during the diagnosis/treatment phase is it determined that a patient’s symptoms are from, say, chemical imbalance issues vs something like a tumor or brain injury? Well good news, kids, because that’s a question Dr. Walker and his ilk are trained to consider.
“In most of the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5, there is a line that asks whether the presenting symptoms could be better explained by a medical condition or the effects of a medication,” explains Dr. Walker. “This requires the psychologist to have a basic working knowledge of neuroanatomy, psychopharmacology, and neuropsychology, which allows us to ask appropriate questions to rule out the possible influence of these variables on the [individual’s] presenting condition.” If the psychologist deems it appropriate, they will refer the individual to another provider for additional assessment/testing to clarify the root cause of the presenting symptoms. “This has happened several times in my career. I once referred a patient to his primary care physician to request an MRI based on the patient’s reported onset of severe headaches and display of pseudobulbar affect—random, uncontrollable laughing and crying. A patient with a mild traumatic brain injury from an automobile accident six years prior developed OCD. One time I had a patient present with hypomanic symptoms (super happy, talkative, goal-directed, restless, etc.) who, it turned out, was abusing Adderall he got from his roommate.” Dr. Walker doesn’t have admitting privileges or the ability to refer patients for certain medical tests, so in cases like those mentioned above, he consults with other medical providers and encourages them to investigate further.
Things, they are A-Changin’
Over the past few years, more people have joined the campaign to be open about mental health. “I get the feeling that there are a lot of misconceptions about mental health disorders, though I’ve seen mental health stigma gradually decrease in the general population over the last decade,” Dr. Walker says. “Mental health disorders are, by definition, abnormal. This has a negative connotation, but in truth all this means is that mental health disorders are not the predominant function of our brains or behavior. As with any minority condition or trait, this makes understanding the experiences of someone with a mental health condition difficult for the majority who do not have this personal experience or exposure.”
As we talk about mental health issues more frequently and in a more open-minded and educated manner, we gradually begin to lessen the stigma. “The millennial generation seems to be more prone to talking about mental health issues and advocating for disenfranchised/minority members, including those who suffer from relatively rare mental health conditions like OCD, schizophrenia, and Bipolar Disorder,” says Dr. Walker.
If you or someone you know is struggling with any type of mental health issues, reach out, talk about it, and seek help. You are not alone.
Hallo, hallo, and happy Monday. Or just normal Monday. Dave says, “Melancholy Monday,” but we don’t really want to entertain anything Dave says. He’ll start to think he’s people. Welcome to part two of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. We’re past the science dump and onto the human side of these disorders. Three volunteers participated in an interview, the questions of which were essentially the same in order to get a scope of how differently these disorders affect individuals.
From the top, I want to give a huge thank you to the participants—whose names I will be changing for privacy purposes.
The first task I asked of my participants was to try to describe what their depressive and anxiety episodes felt like and whether they differed from day to day. The participants included one male (based in Alabama), and two females (one based in California, and one in Florida). So, going forward, the participants will be called Alabama, California, and Florida. It’s nice when I don’t have to be creative and make up actual names.
Both Alabama and Florida suffer from depression and anxiety. If you remember from the previous post, anxiety and depression tend to show up together, first one, then the other. The symptoms of these disorders also overlap quite a bit. While California suffers from anxiety, her chances of battling depression in the next few years are statistically higher than average.
So, what does depression and anxiety feel like, day to day, for our participants?
Alabama: The depression feels like you’re all alone, no one cares, and you’d be better off not being here. The anxiety makes me feel like I can’t breathe, like I’m going to cave in on myself. I don’t want to be around anyone. It’s different day to day. Some days I don’t want to leave the house and others I’m just fine and seem normal to everyone, but inside I’m screaming.
Florida: My anxiety feels like someone is sucking the life out of me. Having anxiety and anxiety attacks are very scary. Recently I had three very bad attacks where I thought I was having a heart attack and needed to go to the hospital. I ate tums, drank cold water, laid down, and focused on my breathing. It lasted roughly 15 minutes, then the next one came on and same thing happened. I had to take my prescribed medication and eventually fell asleep and slept for several hours. I was okay after that.
My depression is a feeling of just being in a funk and not wanting to do anything or go anywhere. After my dad passed in December 2017, I became really depressed and was diagnosed with severe depression. If I was talking to someone, I would just burst into tears for no reason. I would sleep a lot and didn’t want to take a shower—it didn’t even cross my mind until my husband asked me if I took one that day. The depression and anxiety differ from day to day. Some days/weeks I do not leave my house, I don’t talk to anyone (I used to be a social butterfly and talk to a lot of people, now I don’t). I am withdrawn from life. I don’t sleep well and can fall asleep anywhere from 11 pm to 3 am. At night my mind races and I can’t get it to slow down (even with meds) enough to relax and fall asleep.
California: Anxiety has different types of feelings or levels. Some days it’s no big deal. When I’m dealing with a lot of stress at work, with the kids, etc., it’s harder to sleep. I find my mind can’t stop thinking about whatever the problem is. Sometimes, even if nothing is going wrong, I have anxiety about what could potentially go wrong.
Insomnia and losing the will to do anything are common symptoms of depression and anxiety. These two symptoms feed a cycle that exacerbates depressive episodes especially. You can see this is cases of insomniacs suffering depressive episodes, though they might not be clinically depressed. In the most basic of terms: Lack of sleep can fuck you up. The lack of will to do the things you normally love is crippling. At a certain point, it turns into a lack of will to do anything and the less you do, the worse the depressive episode can become.
Florida: Depression is every day, really. It is just learning to focus on you and say, “Today is going to be a good day,” and accomplish one task. Just doing one task a day helps me a lot and I end up doing more sometimes.
Individuals suffering from depression and anxiety aren’t just battling internally. Getting medical help, getting understanding, the pressure of trying to hide the illness is sometimes brutal. I asked our participants when they first realized something was wrong, when they sought help, and what frustrations they encountered while seeking treatment.
Alabama: I was about 12 [when I realized something was wrong]. I was 15 when I started receiving help. Then I stopped, thinking I’d be fine. It wasn’t until ’09 that I received the proper help I really needed. It was a slow, tedious process to find out what I would fit best [in terms of medication]. The first med was Lexapro. It is evil. I became meaner and angrier and gained a shit-ton of weight on it. I was then put on Wellbutrin, and it has been the best thing for me.
California: I want to say in my early 20s I noticed an issue with [anxiety]. Shortly after having kids. I still haven’t sought professional help. I’ve just realized in the past year that I need to do so. I plan to next week. Since I haven’t been “clinically diagnosed,” I’ve self-medicated for years without even knowing. I always drink before bed so that my mind doesn’t keep me awake. I’ve smoked pot before, but all it does is make me paranoid, which makes the anxiety worse.
Florida: I initially had my first bout with depression when I was 16, after my grandmother committed suicide. I lost weight, was tired all the time, slept a lot, cried a lot. We were out of town for a week and all I did was cry and yell to “go home.” The next week I didn’t go to school because I was physically sick. The next time it happened I was in my early 20s and I just felt low and disconnected. I went back to the doctor right away and went back on meds. I have been on/off throughout my life. This stint has been the longest, since I had my back surgery in July 2014. I really don’t know what happened, but I just don’t feel like the same person after the surgery.
The frustrations of being diagnosed are always being asked, “Do you want to end your life? Do you want to hurt yourself or other(s)?” In my opinion, I wouldn’t be seeking help if I was suicidal. I have already been through it, and I know the devastation it causes for a family/others left behind. The thought has never crossed my mind—I never wanted my parents to have to have the hurt of losing a child.
Throughout the process of getting diagnosed and then finding the right medication, individuals have to struggle through fighting certain perceptions of depression and anxiety. This added external pressure sometimes keeps sufferers from seeking help in the first place. Sometimes that turns out okay … And other times, not so much. Suicide is often associated with depression and there are plenty of clinical studies to back that up, but it’s different for every individual. For some individuals, suicide is never a conscious thought—it’s a snap decision (and I hesitate to really even call it a decision). For other individuals, it’s just not an option. And, for some individuals, it’s a plague of a thought. Regardless, it’s not comfortable when you seek help and the first question is, “Are you suicidal?” It is a question that needs to be asked, but it’s also a stigma associated with depression.
Clearing up Misconceptions
Friends and family can be some of the biggest tools in an individual’s arsenal while going through depressive or anxious episodes. Tools … in the toolbox. Weapons in the arsenal. Mixing metaphors again. The point is, it’s very helpful when the people you surround yourself with understand what depression is, what anxiety is, and are able to be supportive. I asked our participants how their friends and families treated them and what the biggest hurdle is when dealing with these disorders
Alabama: My family treated me like I was angry all the time. Well, I was. Friends are more understanding—they know why and what has conspired in my life to cause it to be worse as I’ve gotten older. I have a few friends that can tell when a really bad episode will take place. My biggest hurdle dealing with these [disorders] are people not understanding why I feel the way I do. It’s like, “You can get over it and be fine.” Okay, that’s not the case. People call you crazy or a nut case—which may be true, but they don’t know what causes it.
Florida: My mom suffers from both depression and anxiety also, my sister has been diagnosed with depression since my dad became ill, my dad was on depression and anxiety meds, my grandfather is on depression meds since my dad has passed. It is hereditary on both sides of my family, unfortunately. My husband has suffered from both also, so he is understanding. [My biggest hurdle is] trying to overcome it, trying to have a “normal” life again. I don’t like taking pills and having to keep track of when I need more and of doctor appointments. I just want things to be okay again. I hate being like this. It makes my brain run slower, and I can’t think of the answers to questions as quickly. Especially when someone asks what I want to do–I don’t really want to do anything. I isolate myself, so I don’t have to be forced into a situation where I have to respond because it’s exhausting. Also eating maybe 1.5 meals a day, having no appetite. Trying to smile or laugh daily. I can’t remember the last time I laughed, seriously. My depression has gotten a lot worse since I lost my dad, too.
California: [Friends and family] treat me normal, I guess. I talk to my mom about it more than anyone and she sympathizes more than anyone. I think she has the same issue. [My biggest hurdle] is trying not to think something is wrong. Every time things are going right, I get scared because it’s too good.
Well, it’s about time to wrap this up, folks. The final question I asked our participants is what they want people to understand about depression and anxiety. I think it’s a fitting place to leave off, since it offers a neatly-packaged take-away to the series. You’re welcome.
Alabama: I want people to understand that we do suffer from the illness and have no control over it except with medication. This isn’t something that can be turned on and off like a light switch. Those who have loved ones that do suffer, try to be understanding—we don’t mean to be harsh or reclusive or angry. It’s the chemical imbalance we were born with, or perhaps a traumatic experience. Whatever the case, educate yourselves on our behalf so you’ll get a better understanding of why we act the way we do.
Florida: It is a real illness, it is not fake. Anyone who suffers with depression and/or anxiety didn’t ask for either one of these illnesses. It can be debilitating for some people and consume their life. I would like them to answer these questions:
- Do you enjoy getting up and going to a job every day and socializing with people?
- Do you like making money? Could you survive on $500-1,200 a month?
- Do you like going to the doctor and being reminded to get medications and when to take them?
- Do you enjoy going anywhere and not having a breakdown? Being able to breathe and not gasping for air, or not crying at the drop of a hat?
- Do you like to be reminded to shower daily, to accomplish one task a day?
Hallo, darlings. I feel like we had so much fun in our previous discussion on depression that we should do it again! My last post came from a personal place and was definitely one-sided. Well, I’ve decided we need to split the difference between the science behind depression and speaking with sufferers. And not just depression, but anxiety disorders as well. Mood and anxiety disorders have numerous overlapping symptoms and often having one will lead to eventually suffering from the other.
I mentioned last time that depression isn’t an emotion—it’s a state being. So now, I’ll back that up with the—drumroll, please, Dave—science around depression and anxiety. As with any kind of neuroscience, nothing it completely concrete here. Every day we are learning more about the brain. Having said that, the clinical studies included in this post reflect the most in-depth researched and medically accepted causes for depression and anxiety.
Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Systems
The prevailing science behind depression and anxiety disorders centers around serotonin and norepinephrine dysfunction. When you first get on an antidepressant, chances are it’s an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or SNRI (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), which is usually prescribed before MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) or atypical antidepressants. Depending on who you talk to, SSRIs—though having the least side effects—are probably the least viable option long term. In an overview in Depression and Anxiety, Charles B. Nemeroff, M.D., Ph.D., states: “There has been increasing evidence […] that antidepressants that inhibit both norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake (SNRI) are more effective in severe and refractory depression than those that inhibit uptake of a single monoamine neurotransmitter. In addition, patients with major depression treated with dual reuptake inhibitors may achieve remission more frequently than those treated with single monoamine reuptake inhibitors.” Conversely, depressive episodes for patients on SSRIs often hit harder. In the event you think you have depression and are about to look for treatment, be ready for a whirlwind of ups and downs before you get the right meds.
Of course, there’s more to it than just serotonin and norepinephrine dysfunction. In Role of Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Systems in the Pathophysiology of Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Nemeroff and Kerry J. Ressler explain: “There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) neurotransmitter systems in depression and anxiety disorders. […] The underlying causes of these disorders, however, are less likely to be found within the NE and 5HT systems, per se. Rather their dysfunction is likely due to their role in modulating, and being modulated by, other neurobiologic systems that together mediate the symptoms of affective illness.”
It’s important not to think of depression and anxiety as something you can through pills at and be done with. These illnesses are more complicated than that and their origins are not singular. Continues Nemeroff and Ressler: “Disrupted cortical regulation may mediate impaired concentration and memory, together with uncontrollable worry. Hypothalamic abnormalities likely contribute to altered appetite, libido, and autonomic symptoms. Thalamic and brainstem dysregulation contributes to altered sleep and arousal states. Finally, abnormal modulation of cortical-hippocampal-amygdala pathways may contribute to chronically hypersensitive stress and fear responses, possibly mediating features of anxiety, anhedonia, aggression, and affective dyscontrol.” When dealing with depression and anxiety, it is important to rule out symptoms that are caused be a secondary problem.
It’s in Your Genes … And Environment
I’m assuming we all know the nature vs nurture argument, especially pertaining to mental illnesses. And, as with most cases to which this argument can be applied, the likelihood of suffering depression or anxiety are both attributed to nature and nurture. Nemeroff and Elizabeth B. Binder, M.D., Ph.D, explain: “Susceptibility to depressive or anxiety disorders is now well established to be due to the combined effect of genes and the environment, with heritability estimates for these disorders ranging from about 30% to 40%. The CRF system, being highly responsive to the environment, has been posited to serve as a key interface between environmental stressors and the development of depression.”
Research based on Hopelessness Theory and Beck’s Theory further back up this claim. The team behind Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Theories of Depression: Examining Affective Specificity in the Prediction of Depression Versus Anxiety in Three Prospective Studies posits that: “According to the cognitive vulnerability-stress component of HT, a depressogenic cognitive style is hypothesized to interact with negative life events to contribute to increases in depressive symptoms. In HT cognitive vulnerability is conceptualized as a tendency to make negative inferences about the cause […] consequences, and meaning for one’s self-concept, of a negative life event. Similarly, BT posits a vulnerability-stress component in which dysfunctional attitudes are hypothesized to interact with negative events to contribute to elevations of depressive symptoms. In BT, cognitive vulnerability is conceptualized as depressive self-schemas containing dysfunctional attitudes, such as one’s worth derived from being perfect or needing approval from others.”
For non-sufferers, it is important to realize that depression and anxiety are not normal emotional responses. They are abnormal, and out of sufferer’s control. Saying something like, “Relax,” or, “You’re overreacting,” to someone who suffers from depression or anxiety only serves to alienate the sufferer more.
I wanted part one of this series to really show that depression and anxiety are not personality defects, not cries for attention, not someone being overly dramatic or sensitive. Although, sure, there are some of those types of people scattered about. Depression and anxiety stem from the very genetic level of the sufferer. And from there, it’s a cycle. You’re genetically predisposed to negativity and so you find it everywhere, which doubles down on depressive or anxious episodes.
Part two of this post is going to balance out the science with the human aspect. We’ll be getting a peek into the lives and struggles of individuals suffering from depression, anxiety, or both.
Be on the lookout for part two next Monday!
Hallo, darlings. I’ll skip with the “long time, no talk” jabber and dive right into it. Today, Dave and I are bringing you a super fun topic: depression. And since Dave is sitting in the corner chewing Barbie heads like a feral man-child, I guess I’ll be doing most of the work. This post is coming a bit late following the media blowout of the suicides of Anthony Bourdain and Kate Spade—don’t start with the conspiracy theories, Dave—but this post isn’t exactly about suicide (most of which are not media worthy). Since depression can lead to suicide, the two topics can often go hand in hand.
Anyway, since this is already getting pretty dark, what say we get started!
Right, so, depression means different things to different people. Those who have never experienced it typically don’t understand it. Those who have experienced it … well, they don’t typically understand it either. I’m going to avoid the neurochemical and/or physiological aspects of depression, because that’s not really what I want to focus on. Also, because I’m not only referring to clinical or diagnosed depression. What I want to focus on is being depressed, the state of depression as it affects an individual.
Understanding the Cause
To understand the cause of depression, you have to be able to understand that in some cases … there is no cause. Sure, the whole chemical imbalance or specific brain region trauma/abnormality blah blah blah—yes, those are identifiable causes for depression. But, in some cases, depression just is. It’s there. You can follow the thread of it back to the onset only to find a wall. So, then, why are you depressed?
In my opinion, that is one of the most harmful questions for someone going through an episode of depression. It’s an ignorant question asked from—likely—good intentions. And yet, if the sufferer has no identifiable cause, it’s a question that’s impossible to answer. Trying to answer it can make the sufferer feel inadequate, even stupid. It’s such a simple question, after all. One the sufferer likely asks his/herself throughout the depressive episode.
Depression and sadness are often used interchangeably. While sadness can become depression, the two are not the same (shocking revelation). Sadness is an emotion; depression is the pushing down of your entire personality. “I feel sad,” vs “I am depressed.” It seems an insignificant differentiation on the page (or screen). It’s not (another shocking revelation).
Now, I’m just your average country bumpkin (sarcasm), so explaining how depression feels is hard. In fact, the only way I can think to explain depression is through a more creative route. So, give me a second to dust the cult off my creative writing shoes (shameless plug for upcoming book Commonality Sanctum) and let’s see if I can’t wow you with some poetic prose. But not actually poetry because, you know, I have a reputation.
Depression is …
Depression is despondency, but it’s more than that and it’s less than that.
Depression is the lack of fire, the lack of fight.
Depression is the loss of will, the loss of passion.
Depression is the total blackout that blinds you to who you were before the episode and who you want to be again.
Depression is laughing for hours with your best friend and then, in the five seconds of conversational stillness, getting lost.
Depression is wanting to go home … but you’re already there.
Depression is staring at the wall, because what else is there?
Depression is the stone on the stone on the stone on the stone on your chest, weighing you down.
Depression is not caring, because caring requires a spark of something that isn’t there, not right now.
Depression is waiting around for the episode to end, but you aren’t holding out much hope.
Depression is, “I don’t want to do this.”
Depression is, “I can’t do this.”
Depression is, “Why even try?”
Like I said at the top, super fun content today. If you know someone who is suffering from depression, reach out to them. If you are a sufferer having an episode, just keep in mind there are numerous crisis hotlines. And remember, the storm will pass, but you have to be alive to appreciate it.